Its Not the Destination OR Journey Mapping for Museums

 

Touchpoints

Visitor experience is everyone’s job, not just those people who have “visitor” or “experience” in their title. Picture your visitor. What is the first thing that comes to mind? What are they doing? Buying a ticket? Standing in your gallery? Reading your labels. These are the types of touchpoints that are the focus of many museum professionals. However, you are missing important elements of your visitor’s experience. Much of the make and break comes at the moments in between.

Step back for a moment, think about going to the grocery store. You bought vegetables, milk, and bread. You also bought six things that were not on your list. Is that what you remembered? Or did you also remember the old lady who cut you off on the way to the corn? And, the sample guy trying to convince you that “pea-based false meat” is pretty good. Then there was your third-grade teacher standing in the lunch meat aisle. Many of your memories are about the moments in between destinations. As the adage extolls, it’s the journey not the destination.

Pathway Planning

Focusing on the journey requires changing focus from end-point planning, where you focus your energy on the galleries, turning instead to pathways. This shift requires focusing on the visitor’s needs and actions. In doing this, the energy shifts focus from the institution, often placing its decision-making heft in gallery-based decisions, to the visitor, whose experience is often born of the spaces in between the parking lot to the gallery. Mapping out people’s paths is called Journey Mapping, in User Experience Design talk. But, basically, you visualize what people do and why they do it.

Why use Journey Mapping?

As another old adage goes, don’t judge until you walk a mile in his shoes.  The saying, trite as it is, points to the role of understanding in creating a Journey Map. In other words, an ideal pathway planning process requires purpose and empathy to be foregrounded. Instead of just the nodes, or the point of getting somewhere, you spend your energy on every moment in between.  When you do that you learn new insights into your visitors’ decision-making processes. You also learn when serendipity and/ poor planning cause reactions. In other words, you get insight into why people react to your spaces.  In this way, journey mapping helps break through status quo planning, i.e. doing something as its always been done.

How do you Journey Map?

  1. Just as with fiction, journey maps should draw on what you know. So, start by observing patrons. But, then use that as the base to creating your map.
  2. A journey map is not a generic map. The journey map starts with a person. Specificity is essential. This is not like google maps. Instead, it’s more than the map your best friend gives you with asides about great signs and tips about places you will get lost. When doing journey maps, take a point of view. Keep that person in mind as you work.
  3. Next go for story. Imagine this person coming to your organization. Why are they there? What do they want out of it? That will be the motivation. Write out a two-sentence story of their motivations and goals, like the plot of their visit.
  4. The map is sort of the arc of your story, with all the tangents and eddies that your character might need to be authentic. Make sure to think out the path and the stops. Be specific about the character’s motivation and well as their process.
  5. You might imagine that you start by drawing. But, the best journey maps are visualizations of an experience that you have thoroughly planned. They are not random. So, waiting to draw allows you to be purposeful.

Even if you choose to hire someone to do your journey maps, understanding the process is incredibly useful. It helps you understand why maps are useful. They help you understand your visitor’s holistically. Often museum staff prioritize decisions without having a thorough understanding of their visitor. Tools like journey maps help you center your visitor in your process in ways that draw on process and empathy.

Exhibition Cocktails or Why Museums Need User Experience Designers

I admit that I am biased.  I am a trained User Experience Designer.  But, you don’t have to has an M.S. to know that visitors come to museums for experiences. Now, we could get into a debate about the type of experience. Sitting quietly in a gallery is a type of experience.  We often think of our spaces as nouns (Chinese paintings, fossils, penguins), but visitors think of them as experiences (go to the art museum, look at the dinosaurs, wander in the zoo).

User Experience is about shifting all the activities from the institution doing the serving (the museum) to the person being served (the visitor). Even the word visitor has challenging connotations. The word visitor does not indicate the interactional nature of the experience. Patron might be better. Despite the challenges with that word, patron does indicate that a choice has been made. That person has chosen to patronize this establishment to do something.

Many activities in the museum-sphere also change, such as interpretation/ education/ or content in this framework. (I find interpretation a challenging term. It implies a sort of power differential, where  some special person serves an an intercessor for knowledge. Interestingly, this term is most often associated with art museums further implying that art is about getting it. But, that is for another blog post...)

If you think about a person walking into a space, all the ideas should enhance the experience. You might think of the experience as a volume, like a cup. Everything that is written (signs, labels, etc) are about getting the right recipe for the best cocktail.  Now, while I don’t mean to imply that being in an exhibition is like drinking, the right mix of exhibition elements can be intoxicating.  So, the act of putting it all together, developing all the elements is about facilitating an experience. Writing then becomes about distilling an experience into words rather than just transmitting ideas.

The ideas as still there, in case someone has started screaming, she wants to dumb it down. Instead, you look at the experience that would make people be the most receptive to the ideas, and then use that  as your guide for writing. What does change in this scenario is writing for writing sake. This is hard! I love the written word (I do after all blog every week). But, when we preference the word to the feeling, we are not centering our patrons. We are centering ourselves and our needs.

In user-centered interpretation, labels, panels, audio, etc, all are like animals in an ecosystem, and the Interpretation/ Education staff are the unseen mechanism that keeps everything in balance. They might also be more than an invisible force. They create ways to test content, such as understanding emotional impact of tone. They help make sure that the experience improves iteratively.  Most of all, they are the advocate for the patrons.

Finally, in a design shop, the knowledge and value of the user experience designer is important to brand success.  Rather than being at the bottom of the hierarchy, their knowledge set is integral, being part of inception to completion of projects.  In user-centered museums, education/ interpretation is there throughout on all sorts of projects so as to ensure the ideal experience. They understand that good vibes make for happy, repeat users.  After all, if you want your patrons to toast the great times at your museums, they have to feel your brand.

 

 

Usability for Users; Consumerability for Consumers?

Usability is one of those words that has a faint jargon-style feeling to it. In pitching the power of eyetracking, card sorts, and participant design, you are wisest to avoid all those terms.  These are terms that alienate your clients.  As John Rhodes discusses in Selling Usability, focusing on the customers, rather than the testing, will help people understand the end goal of testing.

To get to that goal, you will need to design a test, perform the test, get results, analyze the rests.  After all of that, you will then need to make sense of the data.  With eye tracking, for example, you will need to help make sense of heat maps.

Visualizations, when interpreted well and correlated with think aloud information, can translate data into meaning. A final report puts everything together creating meaning out of data.  In the end, usability could be said to be the study of users and interfaces. But, you could think of it as understanding customers or consumers, and then finding a way to help your clients see what you have come to understand.

Eyetracking

I am a starer.  It doesn’t help that my eyes are on the large side.  Yesterday, sitting in the airport, I was struck by how many people assumed I was looking at them, when instead I was just staring out into space.  So, I have a natural bias to question eye-tracking studies.  But, there is a real difference between the ways that your face (and your eyes) react when in open-ended learning situations and in information seeking moments.

In websites and mobile devices, you are using these tools for a certain end.  You are seeking something specific.  Much of your interactions with the interface could be summarized by the phrase, “how do I get to the next place, page, part, link, etc.”  In other words, your gaze is often the moment before you take a navigational step.

Eye-tracking studies have real promise in understanding usage in an unmediated way.  Even the smoothest researcher is putting their participant on the spot.  In this case, the participant is acting in a somewhat normal way.  Tools, like the Tobii, do require participants to sit very still–which is not terrible real-world.  But, at least, they are not being artificially prompted by a person.

Eye-tracking studies are not just about where people look, but also understanding this in correlation to time.  What did they look at first? What are the patterns of things they looked at? What didn’t they look at?  In other words, one is assessing behavior.  This can then be correlated with attitudinal data, from their talk alouds, for example.  But, at the core, eye-tracking is about behavior.

More Mobile Testing

I have continued to ruminate on mobile testing.  In thinking about the pervasiveness of mobile, getting mobile right is imperative.  But, at the same time, the testing options have major limitations.  After all, no one actually hugs a laptop while searching for the ideal episode of Gilmore Girls on Netflix on their surface.  And, they probably don’t use a sled when flipping through Pandora on their iPhone.  Most testing scenarios just don’t mimic the real world.  In fact, they are very different from the real world.

It makes me more sure that there has to be someone out there who can create the ideal mobile testing software.  The big challenge with this is that fact that there are many different types of mobile.  There is iOS; both phone and table.  There are Androids and then there are the Windows tablets.  Given the diversity, one might need to create a number of different mobile testing systems.  (Apple has a vested interest in locking down their system.  They have a controlled access mechanism, i.e. with their developer program.)

Mobile Testing

Mobile is ubiquitous. We use phones to check the weather, to read the paper, and take pictures.  There are now more phones that adults on Earth.  Despite the complete diffusion of Mobile, there are still challenges to creating ideal mobile experiences.

Testing remotely has some powerful pluses. Being a fly on the wall helps you understand the unmediated, natural course of actions of your users. Services like Loop11 make remote testing on a computer easy. But, there isn’t a perfect solution on mobile.  Many resourceful testers have figured out work arounds to capture similar feedback.

It does make me feel like a resourceful entrepreneur needs to figure out a way to do remote testing of mobile apps in the way that one uses Loop11. After all, remote testing is a way to understand how people might really use something.

 

 

 

 

Unmoderated Remote Testing

Remote testing is incredibly useful for websites.  After all the worldwide web is just that–Global.  Remote testing means that one can get feedback unencumbered by location of participants.  Rather than intercepting people physically, one can grab people as they go about their business on the site you are testing, for example.  Recruitment is no longer bound to location. And, with sites like Loop11, it is super easy to recruit users.  Just one link, and you are ready.  Without the need for a synchronous appointment, you can rack up numerous user rests.

There are drawbacks to remote testing.  The most important is that one loses much in the way of emotion, expressions, and verbal feedback from users.  This can make it challenging to understand the reasons that users click the buttons they click.

However, remote user testing can offer high volume feedback and identify trends.  In other words, while you might not be able to say why someone did something, you can pretty clearly say categorically that certain trends are obvious.

Moderate User Testing

Moderated User Testing is a useful way for testers to work with users who are not in the same location as themselves.  There are certain challenges, such as passing on incentives, but at the same time there are enormous benefits, such as being able to reach testers globally.

For the tester, videotaping the session is essential.  Moderated user testing can capture facial expressions and user quotes, but it is often challenging to read and assess all of that in real time.

One drawback is that appointments need to be made to run the test.  This isn’t an asynchronous experience, in other words.  Scheduling something with a remote tester can be challenging, and in certain projects one might find that you have a lot of no shows.  So, this could have the challenge of being time consuming.

But, once everything is captured, even with a small subset of users, one can gain quite a lot of feedback, particularly attitudinal feedback.  Moderate user testing is also useful in that it allows for the correlation of attitudinal feedback and behavioral feedback.

Testing from Afar

Testing can be incredibly useful–even essential to rolling out an new product.  But it can be cost-prohibitive.  Small firms might not have the resources to find the right users, employ testers, set up a room with specialized one-way glass, etc.  Of course, people do testing in this way for important reasons: if you have a specialized set up, you need to have the testers on-site.

But, often remote research has significant advantages.  If you are developing a website with global reach, testing remotely allows you to create a diverse testing base. You save money in terms of space and set up.  Newer tools allow testers to remote in, see all the key strokes, but also the facial expressions of the testers.

Remote testing isn’t without its challenges.  If you connection to your remote tester fails, you are out of luck.  You might not be able to observe facial expressions clearly with the interface.  You do have to find a way to send incentives to remote testers.  And, you might  get push back from your stakeholders as remote testing isn’t universally accepted.

Even with the possible downsides, the significant positive points make remote research an important tool for user experience researchers.

Reading all the Signs

I remember feeling like my first semiotics class was eye opening.  I had never considered that there could be an order to language or that that there was a science to understanding this order.  Now, all this is a bit of an aside, but I bring it up because there is a parallel with usability testing.  There is both an order to how people act and then a tandem act in which evaluators observe to make sense of what people do.

Video helps this latter act considerably.  Without it, the evaluator will need to scribble notes and inevitably miss things.  With the video, the tester has the audio, including all the textual responses,  the gesture of the mouse, and the facial expressions.  All of these tools are helpful in assessing usability.

The key is for the tester to create a framework where users feel comfortable testing the site, and sharing their ideas.  Once that framework is in place, then one will find very useful information.  But, without it, the user won’t feel comfortable sharing.  A script helps the tester to be assured that they are saying the same thing each time.  But, this script also helps the tester feel ready to put their user at ease.

Once that is done, one has the long task of many sense of the data.  Often wading through all the information is almost as much fun as generating the data.  Interpretation of evaluation data is the process of bringing into order disorder through noticing patterns.  Once the patterns are clear, a good tester then develops a scheme to make sure that these patterns are obvious to anyone who reads the deliverable.